Dating acts between the evangelists and the apologists
There are reasons for thinking that at this date the corresponding word "testamentum" was already in use amongst the Latins.
In any case it was common in the time of Tertullian.
, because its three grades correspond to the three grades of the Sacrament of Holy Orders.
The word hierarchy is, however, also used in a wider sense.
Such are cardinals, nuncios, delegates, patriarchs, primates, metropolitans, archbishops, vicars-general, archdeacons, deans, parish priests, and curates.
This hierarchy in the wider sense is called , because the persons in question have actual power in the Church.
A further gradation of dignity is obtained by the inclusion of the Bishop of Rome, the head of the Church and Vicar of Christ, to whom, by reason of the Divine origin of the hierarchy, the three grades just mentioned are subordinated.
In fact Enslin argues that when we examine the gospel narratives in sequence it is far more probable that the paths of John and Jesus never crossed.
Before I was out of high school I was reading apologetics, then early Christian literature, various Bible translations, etc. I understood I would have to familiarize myself with the important authors in the fields that interested me, Bible and Theology, as well as adjacent studies, and the number of these only grew as the years went by, eventually including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, literary criticism, Deconstruction, and so on. Religious people are highly resistant to young know-it-alls updating their liturgy and hymns.
I quickly came to see that I could not rely on second-hand summaries of what the giants had supposedly said, since such summaries are often subtly slanted to make it easier for the scholar describing them to refute them in favor of his own new theory. After all, some idiots lacking any understanding of metaphor have tried to censor Onward Christian Soldiers from hymnals because they falsely imagine it to be militaristic!
They concentrated on documentary sources underlying our biblical books, especially the Pentateuch. Eissfeldt is all detail, more than you might want, but then thats just what you need. How are they like or unlike those of adjacent and other cultures? And if the point is not to recount the facts, what are the purposes of the myths? The whole issue grew up because scholars had come far enough to see that the OT did not simply predict Christ and Christianity; the old books must have had their own theology with its own integrity, one that was recapped and carried further in the NT.
The result is the classic JEDP framework, unassailable even today, despite the bugs-on-the-windshield attempts of some young whippersnappers to overturn it. (Anything you can find by Heinrich Ewald, Abraham Kuenen, and Bishop Colenso is well worth reading, too.) Who wrote what? Once the sources of the Pentateuch became clearly defined and differentiated, these scholars applied form-criticism to each source in order to analyze the origin and history of the many specific pericopes (traditional, narrative, or legal units) in it. On the other hand, the notion that the collection of books should have some unitive center was the product of a theological bias (expectation) that, as a canon of scripture, the writings ought to have some basic unity. Eichrodt tried to work everything in under the rubric of the Covenant, while for Von Rad it was the theology of recital of Gods mighty acts in Margaret Barker, The Great Angel: A Study of Israel's Second God Mark S.
From this starting point Enslin sees the evangelists writing alongside an independent John the Baptist movement and each one (at least after Mark) in succession contrives in his own way to make this John more “Christian”.